Friday, 9 January 2009

Mountains take their toll in 2008. New Zealand. Plus: Accident and fatality characteristics in a population of mountain climbers in NZ.

Irina Yun, missing, presumed dead in Mt. Aspiring National Park

2008 was a bad year for deaths in the New Zealand Mountains. For my overseas friends who check this blog regularly for mountaineering updates, you may not have had a chance to see this article written by Stacey Woods in the Christchurch Press today.

I also attach at the end of this article, Accident and fatality characteristics in a population of mountain climbers in New Zealand
by Erik Monasterio. It was published in the New Zealand Medical Journal 28-January-2005, Vol 118 No 1208. Stacey Woods refers to Errik Monasterio in her article.

Here is Stacey Wood's article article in italics. Thanks to the Christchurch Press for permission to use the article.

December was a bad month on New Zealand mountains, with three deaths in almost as many weeks.

Japanese climber Hideaki Nara (photo below) was rescued near the summit of Mount Cook after six days in icy winds and bad weather. His friend, Kiyoshi Ikenouchi, died of exposure while rescuers waited out the conditions.

The year ended with another tragedy when Irina Yun was reported missing in Mount Aspiring National Park. This week searchers found her battered pack in a dangerous gorge on the Dart River, and say it was probably ripped from her body when she fell into the water.

Everyone knows mountaineering is dangerous. Even with the latest technology and instant weather reporting, the deaths keep coming and the climbers keep coming back for more.

Even Mount Cook, at 3754 metres, is small by world standards, but its proximity to the ocean means the weather can change in a heartbeat.Photo: Bob McKerrow

Little more than a week later, Australian doctor Mark Vinar fell to his death while climbing with his brother, Miles, on the same mountain.How high are the risks? Psychiatrist and former mountaineer Erik Monasterio examined the risks faced by climbers in a four-year study, and says there are certain personality traits typical of hardcore mountain-lovers.

During the course of four years tracking 49 regular climbers, his sample group suffered a mortality rate of almost 10 per cent.

Every mountaineer in the group knew friends who had died while climbing.

Monasterio says most mountaineers scale back their climbs or stop altogether when they settle down and start a family.

"I have a son now and I can't approach a mountain in the same way ever again but there is a committed mountaineer population and most of them are male, with a median age of 36, single and childless."

Monasterio says anyone who mountaineers for long enough is practically guaranteed to experience near-misses, if not serious injuries or death.

"No-one wants to have an accident, but you have to accept you are in a high-risk environment.

"It's how often you have near-misses and continue doing it, and there's a core group that will never stop."

Though he sticks to less dangerous pursuits these days, Monasterio still remembers the lure of the mountains.

"It's the environment, the uniqueness, the challenge, and the relationships you build. There's a very special relationship you build with climbing partners, because you are at such risk and there's a lot of trust involved. There's also the drive of challenging yourself, having lofty goals."

Are experienced climbers still at risk?

Veteran climber Mark Inglis lost his lower legs and some close friends to the mountains, but says every mountaineer knows the risks.

"Mountaineering is the ultimate expression of finding your limit -- unfortunately when you find that limit, it can sometimes be lethal."

Though having a family has not stopped him climbing, he says, in his experience, older climbers often had a different focus. "One of the great things is actually just being out there.

"You become far more risk-averse with age, but [seeking a] challenge is something different from the sheer love of the mountains."

Inglis says while a lack of preparation is responsible for many mountain deaths, bad luck can strike even the most experienced climbers.

"The reality is that there's a lot of dead mountaineers with a surprised look on their faces, that have said, `It won't happen to me,"' he says. "So many of our experienced mountaineers that have died have just made one silly little mistake.

"It's just like on the roads. How many road fatalities are because of perfectly competent drivers making a small, one-time error?"

The best you can do is minimise the chance of disaster through practice and preparation.

Land Search and Rescue chief executive Hadyn Smith says actions taken before the climb, such as checking weather patterns and getting to know the environment, are just as important as what happens on the mountain.

"Of the overseas tourists who travel to New Zealand, a sizeable number don't understand the difficulty they'll encounter," Smith says.

"They look at the height of the peaks and the fact that they don't need [bottled] oxygen up there, and they underestimate."

Mountain experts constantly bemoan overseas climbers' ignorance of New Zealand's maritime weather patterns.

The changeable nature of the climate means New Zealand mountains have the risk factor of peaks twice their size, but too often tourists consider only the height.

Even Mount Cook, at 3754 metres, is small by world standards, but its proximity to the ocean means the weather can change in a heartbeat

Conclusion of the next article proves that mountain climbing is associated with a high risk of serious injury and mortality.

Accident and fatality characteristics in a population of mountain climbers in New ZealandErik Monasterio Abstract

Aim To examine demographic, morbidity, and mortality findings in a population of mountain climbers in New Zealand.

Methods A baseline survey and a 4-year follow-up took place among a population of mountain climbers. The purpose of this survey was to determine the frequency and characteristics of mountain-climbing accidents and to estimate the climbing-related death rate.

Forty-nine climbers enrolled in the study. Baseline findings revealed that 44 (90%) climbers had been involved in the sport for more than 5 years and 23 (47%) climbers had been involved in a total of 33 accidents. At 4-year follow-up, results were available on 46 (94%) climbers. There were nine further accidents and four deaths from climbing misadventure.

Conclusion: Mountain climbing is associated with a high risk of serious injury and mortality.

Mountaineering and alpine rock climbing activities are considered by the general public to be high-risk endeavours. Historically climbing attitudes have tended to be strongly influenced by 19th Century values of discipline, self-denial, cooperation, and romanticism.1 However, over the past 15 to 20 years, attitudes have shifted as commercial and market pressures have become more pronounced. Guided ascents to most major climbing areas in the World are now available to fee-paying clients.

Several adventure climbing companies offer novices guided ascents of the World’s highest peaks, such as Mount Everest, for a fee of NZ$50,000 to NZ$65,000. Despite well-publicised disasters such as the 1996 Everest tragedy where five climbers (from two commercial expeditions) died, the number of clients continues to increase.1

Recently, significant media attention has focused on 13 reported climbing fatalities in Mount Cook National Park (MCNP) and on Mount Aspiring in the South Island of New Zealand.2 Many of the fatal accidents have involved experienced, senior guides and their clients—as well as experienced mountaineers.3 Four guides (constituting 10% of qualified New Zealand mountain guides) died from climbing misadventure during 2004.

A search of the medical and climbing literature revealed several studies that have estimated death rates associated with mountaineering in different settings. Malcolm examined fatality data from the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council and the Mount Cook Field Office of the Department of Conservation between July 1981 and June 1995.4 There were a total of 46 deaths due to mountaineering misadventure and Malcolm estimated the fatality rate to be 1.87/1000 climbing days in MCNP.

Malcolm concluded that the risk of death from climbing in MCNP was 5000 times greater than from work-related injuries in New Zealand. Pollard et al examined data from an international mountaineering journal between December1968 and December 1987 and estimated that the death rate of British climbers on peaks over 7000 metres high was 4.3 per 100 mountaineers.5 These results support the view that mountain climbing is associated with a high risk of death. However, the data is limited and open to bias as it estimated death rates by examining fatality statistics of climbers in specific, particularly dangerous mountain regions. Furthermore, the research did not prospectively examine a population of climbers and therefore caution must be exercised in generalising from the results.

To our knowledge, there are no past or current studies examining accident and fatality rates in climbing populations. The purpose of this paper is to report the demographic characteristics, morbidity, and mortality findings in a prospective survey of a group of climbers. Baseline and 4-year follow up reports are provided. The results are from a study that examined the psychological characteristics in a population of mountain and alpine rock climbers. The psychological characteristics of the study population have been reported in a climber’s journal publication and are available from the author.6


Subjects were a diverse group of climbers enrolled into the survey on a voluntary basis. They were recruited from local Alpine Club meetings, adventure magazine advertisements, and from personal communication among the climbing community. Subjects in the study were involved in mountaineering and alpine rock climbing sports.

Subjects agreed in writing to participate in the study and responded to several pen-and-paper questionnaires providing information on age, gender, marital status, number of children, and number of years involved in climbing.

The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory were also completed.7

Subjects were asked whether they had suffered serious climbing accidents. Severity of accidents were rated as either:

Mild—if injury required medical help, but did not lead to hospital admission and convalescence was less than 1 week,
Moderate—if injury required hospital admission and/or convalescence was more than 1 week, but less than 3 months, or
Severe—if injury led to risk of death, protracted convalescence (more than 3 months) and/or long-term health problems.
Rock climbing grades were rated according to the Australasian Ewbank system (5 to 34), where grade ‘5’ indicates trekking through rough terrain. Above grade ‘10’, ropes and security devices are recommended. Grades above ‘18’ require a significant degree of technical skill. (Generally the higher the grade, the greater the technical challenges and risks assumed.)

Mountaineering climbing grades were rated according to the New Zealand and Australian system (1 to 7). For grade ‘3’, technical climbing equipment (such as ice axes, crampons, security equipment, and a rope) are required. Grade ‘5’ involves sustained technical climbing, which may include vertical sections of ice climbing. Grade ‘6’ involves climbing vertical sections of ice with poor protection for the climber. Grade ‘7’ is possible but is as yet unaccomplished. Subjects were followed up 4 years after baseline data was obtained. Subjects were interviewed in person, over the telephone, or via email and data collected on accident and death statistics.

A serious omission of the study was the failure to collect specific data on risk exposure, beyond a baseline estimation of climbers who had previously climbed in “high-risk” situations (defined in the discussion section).

Baseline demographic findings are summarised in Table 1.

There was a good response rate—49 out of a total of 60 questionnaires handed out were returned completed. 44 subjects (90%) were male. The median age at the start of the study was 33 years and generally participants were involved in the sport more than 5 years. The median rock-climbing grade was ‘23’ and the median alpine grade was ‘5’.

Results at baseline revealed that 23 (47%) climbers had been involved in a total of 33 accidents (Table 2). There were 10 severe, 16 moderate, and 7 mild accidents. Of those who had more than one accident, four participants were involved in three separate accidents and two were involved in two separate accidents.

At 4-year follow-up, results were available on 46 (94%) participants. There were five deaths—four related to climbing misadventure and one from a medical condition. Two deaths were caused by avalanche, and one from multiple trauma following a climber slipping and falling several hundred meters. The cause of the accident in the fourth climber is unknown. He was on his own and died from multiple-trauma after a fall.

Of the 44-surviving climbers seven (15%) had retired from the sport. There were nine further accidents (seven mild and two moderate) involving seven (15%) climbers.

Several attempts were made to contact the three study participants lost to follow-up. All these were non-New Zealanders who had left the country without providing a contact address. Their names were not recorded in the fatality reports of the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council and the Mount Cook Field Office of the Dept. of Conservation. Review of Internet data located one of the three participants, but unfortunately he did not reply to an email interview.


To the author's knowledge, this is the first prospective study reporting morbidity and mortality data in a population of mountaineers and alpine rock climbers. The study captured a population of serious, committed and experienced climbers, who had been involved in the sport for many years and had reached high levels of technical proficiency.

Ninety-six percent of participants estimated that (on at least two occasions) they had climbed in situations of high-risk. High-risk was defined as climbing in dangerous terrain (under unstable ice cliffs, over avalanche prone terrain and in crevassed glaciers), in dangerous weather conditions, or in situations were the climber did not feel fully confident in their abilities and where a climbing mistake would lead to significant risk of serious injury or death. (Mountaineers practice their sport in glaciated, dangerous environments and so generally this exposure to high risk is an inherent and unavoidable part of the sport.)

At baseline, 47% of climbers had been involved in accidents. Serious accidents involving multiple bone fractures, head, and spinal injuries were not uncommon and interestingly had not dissuaded many climbers from continuing to practice the sport.

A climbing-related death rate of 8.2% over a 4-year period is alarming, and supports other evidence that climbing is a dangerous sport. Mountaineering-related deaths in this study did not appear to be related to inexperience, as all fatal accidents involved participants who had practised the sport more than 5 years, and two who were qualified mountain guides.

All deaths appear to have been a consequence of the hazardous mountain environment. This is similar to Pollard et al’s study, which found that 70% to 80% of fatalities were related to environmental factors.5 This study did not specifically examine the role that altitude-related problems (cerebral and pulmonary oedema) played on morbidity and mortality. However, given the relatively low altitude of New Zealand mountains (all under 4000 metres), the contribution was likely to be very modest.

There are a several methodological limitations that must be considered in interpreting the results of this survey. The main purpose of the study was to collect information on the psychological characteristics of climbers. As part of the study, demographic and accident data were also collected. The findings were therefore from a survey rather than a cohort study.

Data on climbing frequency over the study period was not obtained and so there was no measure of risk exposure to index to the rate of morbidity and mortality. The findings are therefore quite crude. Follow-up of participants was via a single telephone or email interview (4 years after baseline data was collected). This time length may have led to recall bias, as respondents were more likely to forget minor injuries and ‘near misses’ than major accidents and fatalities. It may account for the high death to injury ratio at follow-up and the high moderate-and-severe injury to mild injury ratio at baseline.

The relatively lower injury rate at follow up (compared to baseline) may be due to the fact that 15% of climbers had retired from the sport and that the participants were older and potentially less inclined to take risks.

The population was not strictly a random sample. General difficulties in recruiting sufficient volunteers from a relatively uncommon sport (to make up a meaningful sample size) led to the inclusion of all climbers whom volunteered to participate in the study. This sample may represent a population of particularly high-risk-taking climbers, as 47% of the population at baseline had been involved in accidents yet persisted with the sport. It is also possible that more cautious climbers, who had given up the sport following an accident or a fear inducing experience, were no longer involved in climbing and so were not included. However, it is also possible that less experienced, more impulsive, and higher-risk-taking climbers were involved in fatal accidents at earlier stages of their climbing careers and so were excluded from the study.

This study examined the risks associated with mountain climbing—and despite the methodological limitations, the results are sobering. Serious injury and death not only contribute to considerable emotional and physical suffering and loss of productivity, but also to a significant burden on medical services. Urgent priority should be given to replication studies to further explore the relationship between mountaineering, morbidity and mortality.

The reasons that determine an individual’s choice to climb mountains are complex. An adventurous spirit appears to be part of human nature and clearly mountain climbing provides participants with many positive experiences and enhanced physical and psychological wellbeing through regular participation in outdoor activities.

Interestingly, many participants in the study made unprompted positive comments about the benefits of climbing and seemed keen to point out that they chose to climb despite the perceived risks of the sport.

Author information: M Erik Monasterio, Forensic Psychiatrist, Medlicott Academic Unit, Hillmorton Hospital, Christchurch

Acknowledgements: The research was supported by a grant-in-aid from the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. I would also like to formally thank all climbers who generously participated in this study, as well as Dr L Childs (for helpful comments) and Maureen Weir (for secretarial support).

Correspondence: Dr Erik Monasterio, Forensic Psychiatrist, Medlicott Academic Unit, Hillmorton Hospital. Private Bag 4733, Christchurch. Fax: (03) 3391149; email:


Elmes M, Barry D. Deliverance, Denial and the death zone: a study of narcissism and regression in the May 1996 Everest climbing disaster. J of Applied Behavioural Science. 1999;35:163–87.
Mountain survivor was first to fall. The Press (newspaper), Christchurch, New Zealand. April 15, 2004.
The Climber. Saxon Print, Christchurch, New Zealand. Issue 47/Autumn; 2002: p13.
Malcolm M. Mountaineering fatalities in Mt Cook National Park. N Z Med J. 2001;114:78–80.
Pollard A, Clarke C. Deaths during mountaineering at extreme altitude. Lancet. 1988;1:1277.
Monasterio E. The Climber. Christchurch: Saxon Print; 2003:Issue 43/Autumn:p31–2.
Cloninger C, Przybeck T, Svrakic D, Wetzel R. The Temperament and Character Inventory: a guide to its development and use. Center for Psychobiology of Personality. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University; 1994.


Anonymous said...

Hi Bob.

I stumbled upon your blog a few weeks ago, and since then I've found it fascinating reading.

Thanks for the reference to this study. I knew mountaineering was a dangerous thing, but had no idea it was quite so serious as this. I presume the study is the one described in this 2005 article , in the New Zealand Medical Journal. Even if the sample size is small and possibly biased, 8.2% of experienced climbers having fatal accidents over 4 years seems alarming.

Bob McKerrow - Wayfarer said...

Kia Ora Mike

Yes a fascinating article. Yes, you are right the study referred to is the one in the NZ Medical Journal which you kindly attached. I took the liberty of including the article you gave me a link to, it as I know people are very inbterested in this topic. Thanks.


Ruahines said...

Kia ora Bob,
Excellent article. I think as long as there are mountains there will people who want to climb them, and some in ways that have not been done before.
Just returned from a weekend of camping with Tara and the boys, one great day, and one wet day. But you learn a bit about your family sitting in a wet tent, and it was a pretty cool time, particularly with my older son. By the way, glad I had a few beers at the Wobbly Kea after reading your prior post.
Have a safe trip Bob.

Bob McKerrow - Wayfarer said...

Spot on Robb ! People have always been lured by the unfathomable, the unclimbable, the unsailable, the unwalkable and the unswimable etc.

We must not criticise or condemn their efforts rather we should applaud them for being out of doors and pushing themselves beyond their own self-imposed limitations. It is through such feats of human endurance exemplified by Nelson Mandela that great leaders are made.

Good to read about the family camping. Hope you do a posting on that. They are often the hardest. You can not hide your weaknesses from your family, Big Boy !



Anonymous said...

Hi Bob.

I read with interest the study on accidents.
It made me think of my younger days when I was applying for accidend and sickness insurance. In the risks section I noted rock climbing, diving and flying as interests. It took nine months! for the policy to be approved and it excluded all these activities from insurable events.
Decades laters these exclusioins still apply. It is possible (I have not thought of it until today) that even a fall on a country walk is still excluded.

I was also saddened by the loss of Irina Yun. I see that she has a flickr account and a website, so for a while her images will live on.

Your blog makes good reading.

Bob McKerrow - Wayfarer said...

Dear Mark

Thanks for your feedback. I had the same problems trying to get insurance too. I would think that things have improved but "even a fall on a country walk is still excluded."

And the reason is that the first man to go over the Naiagra Falls in a barrel in the late 1880's was from Auckland. He was uninsured for the Naiagra Falls escapade but insured when 20 years later he slipped on a banana skin in Auckland and died from a blow to the head when he hit the footpath.

Sad about Irina Yun. They called the search off last night.

Her image will live on.


Anonymous said...

Good day !.
You re, I guess , probably curious to know how one can manage to receive high yields .
There is no need to invest much at first. You may start earning with as small sum of money as 20-100 dollars.

AimTrust is what you haven`t ever dreamt of such a chance to become rich
The firm incorporates an offshore structure with advanced asset management technologies in production and delivery of pipes for oil and gas.

Its head office is in Panama with offices around the world.
Do you want to become a happy investor?
That`s your chance That`s what you desire!

I feel good, I started to take up real money with the help of this company,
and I invite you to do the same. It`s all about how to select a proper partner utilizes your funds in a right way - that`s the AimTrust!.
I take now up to 2G every day, and what I started with was a funny sum of 500 bucks!
It`s easy to join , just click this link
and go! Let`s take our chance together to get rid of nastiness of the life

Anonymous said...

Good day, sun shines!
There have were times of hardship when I felt unhappy missing knowledge about opportunities of getting high yields on investments. I was a dump and downright pessimistic person.
I have never thought that there weren't any need in large initial investment.
Nowadays, I'm happy and lucky , I begin to get real income.
It's all about how to choose a proper partner who utilizes your funds in a right way - that is incorporate it in real business, parts and divides the profit with me.

You can ask, if there are such firms? I'm obliged to tell the truth, YES, there are. Please get to know about one of them: [url=]Online Investment Blog[/url]

Anonymous said...


I mostly visits this website[url=].[/url]Lots of good information here I am sure due to busy scedules we really do not get time to care about our health. Here is a fact for you. Recent Research indicates that closely 60% of all U.S. grownups are either obese or overweight[url=].[/url] Hence if you're one of these people, you're not alone. Infact many among us need to lose 10 to 20 lbs once in a while to get sexy and perfect six pack abs. Now the question is how you are planning to have quick weight loss? Quick weight loss can be achived with little effort. Some improvement in of daily activity can help us in losing weight quickly.

About me: I am writer of [url=]Quick weight loss tips[/url]. I am also health expert who can help you lose weight quickly. If you do not want to go under painful training program than you may also try [url=]Acai Berry[/url] or [url=]Colon Cleansing[/url] for fast weight loss.

Anonymous said...

I all the time used to read paragraph in news papers but now as I
am a user of internet therefore from now I am using net for
posts, thanks to web.

Feel free to surf to my homepage; waist to height ratio chart

Anonymous said...

Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog
and wished to say that I've truly enjoyed surfing around your blog posts. In any case I'll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again very soon!

Also visit my site ...

Anonymous said...

Thanks for sharing your thoughts. I truly appreciate your efforts and I am waiting for your next
post thank you once again.

Here is my web blog diets that work fast for women

Anonymous said...

It's wonderful that you are getting ideas from this piece of writing as well as from our dialogue made at this time.

Take a look at my web blog -

Anonymous said...

Appreciate the recommendation. Will try it out.

Look at my web-site ::

Anonymous said...

Way cool! Some very valid points! I appreciate you writing this article plus the rest of
the website is really good.

Feel free to visit my weblog :: diet plans that work

Anonymous said...

Hello There. I found your weblog the use of msn. This is a very smartly written article.
I will make sure to bookmark it and come back to learn more of your
helpful information. Thank you for the post.
I will definitely return.

Also visit my webpage;

Anonymous said...

I am really thankful to the holder of this web site who has shared this wonderful paragraph at at
this place.

Feel free to visit my blog; workouts to improve vertical leap

Anonymous said...

I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
Did you create this website yourself or did you hire someone to do
it for you? Plz reply as I'm looking to design my own blog and would like to know where u got this from. kudos

Here is my blog post :: Mizulean Diets

Anonymous said...

My sis advised me about your website and how nice it is.
She’s proper, I am really impressed with the writing and slick
design. It appears to me you’re simply scratching the floor in terms of what you possibly can
accomplish, but you’re off to an amazing start!

Feel free to surf to my weblog ... how to increase chances of getting pregnant

Anonymous said...

Very good info. Lucky me I сame acгoss your blog by
chance (stumbleupon). I've saved it for later!

My web site; buy hcg drops
Also see my website - hcg pellets

Anonymous said...

Your style is very unique in comparison to other people I've read stuff from. Many thanks for posting when you've got the opportunity, Guess I'll just book mark this blog.

Also visit my web-site - how to jump higher

Anonymous said...

What a data of un-ambiguity and preserveness of precious
familiarity about unexpected feelings.

Check out my webpage ... cashback credit cards

Anonymous said...

You actually make it appear really easy together with your presentation but I in finding
this matter to be actually one thing which I feel I might by no means understand.
It seems too complicated and very large for me.
I am looking ahead on your subsequent put up,
I'll try to get the dangle of it!

Check out my web page Saffron Extract Diet

Anonymous said...

Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets
I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter
updates. I've been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

Review my homepage: workouts to improve vertical leap

Anonymous said...

hello there and thank you for your information – I have certainly picked up something
new from right here. I did however expertise some technical points using
this site, since I experienced to reload the website many times previous to I could get it to load correctly.
I had been wondering if your web host is OK?
Not that I'm complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will sometimes affect your placement in google and can damage your high quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords. Anyway I'm adding this RSS to
my e-mail and could look out for much more of your respective fascinating
content. Ensure that you update this again soon.

My webpage: Acai Juice Benefits

Anonymous said...

I am regular visitor, how are you everybody? This article posted at
this web page is truly good.

Also visit my blog post: the Diet Patch

Anonymous said...

I am really enjoying the theme/design of your website.

Do you ever run into any browser compatibility problems?
A couple of my blog visitors have complained about my site not
working correctly in Explorer but looks great in Firefox. Do you
have any recommendations to help fix this problem?

my site - exercises for vertical leap

Anonymous said...

Not quite surе how yоu've managed to get by for so long.

Feel free to surf to my page :: cheap personal loans

Anonymous said...

Just want to say your article is as surprising. The clearness in your
post is just cool and i can assume you're an expert on this subject. Well with your permission allow me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the rewarding work.

My web site vertical jump workouts

Anonymous said...

Hi, just wanted to mention, I enjoyed this article.
It was inspiring. Keep on posting!

My webpage:

Anonymous said...

hello!,I like your writing very so much!
percentage we communicate more about your post on AOL? I require a specialist in this house to unravel my problem.
Maybe that is you! Taking a look forward to see you.

my blog crash diets that work

Anonymous said...

Hit 'copy' from windoωs ΧP and tried to paste into an аnԁroiԁ аpр.
Maуbe I nеed to quit life.

my pаge

Anonymous said...

One droopy boοb saіd tо another ԁroopу bοob: 'If we don't get
some suρρоrt soon, рeoplе will think wе're nuts.'

my wеblog online secured loans

Anonymous said...

Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and
wished to say that I have truly enjoyed surfing around
your blog posts. After all I will be subscribing to your rss feed and I hope you write again

Feel free to visit my web-site: exercises to jump higher

Anonymous said...

This piece of writing is in fact a fastidious one it assists
new internet viewers, who are wishing for blogging.

Also visit my website ... exercises to jump higher

Anonymous said...

The figuгes are in еffect meaningleѕs, meаnіng the rеsultѕ don't make sense either.

Here is my web-site bad credit personal loans

Anonymous said...

Thanks on your marvelous posting! I actually enjoyed reading it, you might be a great author.

I will make sure to bookmark your blog and definitely will come back
later on. I want to encourage you to continue your great posts, have a nice evening!

Here is my website; diets that work for Women

Anonymous said...

I pеrsonally ԁіdn't spend much time doing this, but it's οbviоuѕly woгth tгyіng.

Here iѕ my homepage: best personal loans

Anonymous said...

Copіeԁ in ωinԁows XP аnd then tried to раste ontο
an anԁroіd app. Maуbе I shоuld гetire from life.

Hеrе is my wеbsіte: fast cash today loans

Anonymous said...

I feel lіke I've been on the bad end of a stampeed after reading this. It's blοody hard ωaking up wіth a

Аlso viѕit my ωeb site - unsecured personal loans

Anonymous said...

Ι fеel liκе I've been on the bad end of a stampeed after reading this. It's bloody hard
waking up with a hangover.

Have a look at my webρagе: unsecured personal loans

Anonymous said...

Oh I gеt it now! I thоught you had thіs down
as an optionаl fоolish еxtra.

Here is my blog ρost :: personal loans bad credit

Anonymous said...

Excellent items from you, man. I've take note your stuff previous to and you're just too great.

I really like what you have got here, certainly
like what you're stating and the way wherein you assert it. You're making it enjoyable and you still take care of to keep it sensible.
I can't wait to learn far more from you. This is actually a tremendous site.

Feel free to visit my weblog ... saffron growing

Anonymous said...

Thanks for your marvelous posting! I quite enjoyed reading it, you might be
a great author. I will always bookmark your blog and
will often come back someday. I want to encourage continue your great writing, have a nice afternoon!

Here is my web site: movie discussion forum

Anonymous said...

Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is an extremely well written article.
I'll make sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful
information. Thanks for the post. I will definitely comeback.

my homepage - xt genix review

oakleyses said...

nike free, ray ban sunglasses, oakley sunglasses, michael kors outlet online, michael kors outlet store, tory burch outlet online, coach outlet store online, longchamp handbags, michael kors outlet online sale, polo ralph lauren, michael kors handbags, louis vuitton, prada outlet, ray ban outlet, burberry outlet online, nike air max, coach purses, coach outlet, nike outlet, chanel handbags, true religion outlet, christian louboutin shoes, red bottom shoes, gucci handbags, coach outlet, louis vuitton outlet online, tiffany and co jewelry, michael kors outlet online, oakley vault, cheap oakley sunglasses, louis vuitton handbags, nike air max, prada handbags, true religion, louis vuitton outlet, polo ralph lauren outlet, longchamp outlet, louis vuitton outlet, tiffany jewelry, kate spade outlet, burberry outlet online, christian louboutin outlet, jordan shoes, christian louboutin, kate spade outlet online, longchamp outlet online, michael kors outlet

oakleyses said...

air max pas cher, hollister, longchamp pas cher, converse pas cher, ralph lauren, nike air max, air jordan, sac vanessa bruno, abercrombie and fitch, scarpe hogan, sac michael kors, louis vuitton uk, michael kors canada, new balance pas cher, ray ban pas cher, nike roshe, hermes pas cher, true religion outlet, ralph lauren pas cher, tn pas cher, nike free, vans pas cher, north face, nike roshe run, nike air force, nike air max, hollister, sac louis vuitton, burberry pas cher, oakley pas cher, michael kors uk, ray ban uk, mulberry uk, north face pas cher, chaussure louboutin, guess pas cher, louis vuitton, nike blazer pas cher, air max, barbour, lululemon outlet online, lacoste pas cher, timberland, longchamp, louis vuitton pas cher, true religion jeans, nike free pas cher

oakleyses said...

bottega veneta, ugg boots clearance, north face jackets, herve leger, wedding dresses, insanity workout, jimmy choo shoes, soccer jerseys, ugg outlet, mcm handbags, beats headphones, canada goose outlet, chi flat iron, ferragamo shoes, ghd, ugg, canada goose outlet, uggs outlet, asics shoes, giuseppe zanotti, nike trainers, longchamp, soccer shoes, vans outlet, p90x workout, valentino shoes, north face jackets, mac cosmetics, mont blanc pens, nike huarache, babyliss, abercrombie and fitch, replica watches, uggs on sale, celine handbags, new balance outlet, reebok shoes, canada goose outlet, nike roshe, marc jacobs outlet, ugg boots, hollister, ugg outlet, birkin bag, canada goose, lululemon outlet, ugg soldes, instyler ionic styler, nfl jerseys

oakleyses said...

iphone 6 case, timberland shoes, louis vuitton canada, nike air max, moncler outlet, toms outlet, hollister, air max, moncler, canada goose, pandora charms, pandora uk, hollister canada, oakley, louboutin, converse, ralph lauren, wedding dress, ray ban, swarovski jewelry, baseball bats, parajumpers outlet, pandora jewelry, canada goose, gucci, moncler, thomas sabo uk, ugg, montre femme, canada goose pas cher, vans, uggs canada, swarovski uk, juicy couture outlet, canada goose, lancel, converse shoes, hollister clothing, coach outlet, links of london uk, moncler outlet, replica watches, karen millen, moncler, supra shoes, moncler, juicy couture outlet, moncler

Unknown said...

Do you need a quick long or short term loan with a relatively low interest rate as low as 3%? We offer Xmas loan, business loan, personal loan, home loan, auto loan,student loan, debt consolidation loan e.t.c. no matter your score, If yes contact us via Email: Fill The Loan Application Form Below Name............ Amount Needed........ Duration.......... Country............ Monthly income....... Age............. Phone Number........ Sex ................. Email................Business Plan/Use Of Your Loan:....... Apply now on this email Warm Regards Dr Purva Sharegistry

Evenly Russell said...

I'm Evelyn Russell resident at 808 NE 19th St Oklahoma City, I am a single mother blessed with 2 daughters. For a while now I have been searching for a genuine loan lender who could help me with a loan as I no longer have a job, all I got were hoodlums who made me trust them and at the end they took my money without giving me any loan, my hope was lost, I got confused and frustrated, it became difficult for my family to feed with a good meal, I never wanted to have anything to do with any loan lending companies on the internet again. Not until I met a God sent loan lender that changed my life and that of my family Through the help of a fellowship member "a lender with the fear of God in him Mr Larry John , he was the man that God sent to elevate my family from suffering. At first I thought it wasn’t going to be possible due to my previous experience until I received my loan worth $225,000.00 USD in less then 24hours. So my advise to anyone out there genuinely in need of a loan is to contact Him through this official email:- ( ) . Thanks and God bless